Thursday, April 19, 2012

Canning and Drying Part 7: Directions for Canning Vegetables

(From the Women’s Institute Library of Cookery 1925)


DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING VEGETABLES

56. CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES.--To simplify the directions here given for the canning of vegetables, this food is divided into four groups, as follows:

1. Greens, which include all wild and cultivated edible greens, such as beet greens, collards, cress, dandelion, endive, horseradish greens, kale, mustard greens, spinach, New Zealand spinach, and Swiss chard.

2. Pod and related vegetables, which include asparagus, beans, both string and wax, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, eggplant, okra, peppers, both green and ripe, summer squash, and vegetable marrow.

3. Root and tuber vegetables, which include beets, carrots, kohlrabi, parsnips, rutabagas, salsify, sweet potatoes, and turnips.

4. Special vegetables, which include beans, both Lima and shell, corn, mushrooms, peas, pumpkin, sauerkraut, squash, succotash and other vegetable combinations, and tomatoes.

The convenience of this plan will be readily seen when it is understood that, with the exception of the special vegetables, the same method of preparation and the time given for the various steps in the canning process apply to all vegetables of the same class. Thus, if directions for a vegetable belonging to a certain class are not definitely stated in the text, it may be taken for granted that this vegetable may be canned in the manner given for another vegetable of the same class.


57. GENERAL DIRECTIONS.--The canning of vegetables may be most successfully done by the one-period cold-pack method. Tomatoes, however, because of the large quantity of acid they contain, may be canned and kept with little difficulty by the open-kettle method, but they will be found to keep their shape better if the cold-pack method is employed.
The time required for cooking any vegetable after it is packed in jars depends on the kind and the age. Therefore, if a vegetable is hard or likely to be tough, it may be necessary to increase the time given in the directions; whereas, if it is young and tender or very ripe, as in the case of tomatoes, the time for cooking may perhaps have to be decreased. Because, in altitudes higher than sea level, the boiling point of water is lower than 212 degrees Fahrenheit, the length of time for boiling foods in the water bath must be increased after an altitude of 500 feet is reached. Therefore, for every additional 500 feet over the first 500 feet, 10 per cent. should be added to the time given for the boiling in water. In case a pressure cooker is used, however, this is not necessary.
The canning directions here given are for 1-quart jars. If pint jars are to be used, decrease the salt proportionately; also, decrease the time for cooking in each case one-fifth of the time, or 20 per cent. If 2-quart jars are to be used, double the amount of salt and add to the length of time for cooking one-fifth, or 20 per cent. For instance, if a 1-quart jar of food requires 90 minutes, a pint jar of the same food would require 72 minutes and a 2-quart jar, 108 minutes.



 

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